Any new learning can be quite overwhelming for the user. Any user can benefit from prompting, regardless of age, communication skills, or cognitive ability. Prompts can be used to assist the user in successfully learning to perform a task - it is a method of guiding the user to give the correct response. If you don’t prompt, the user will continue an incorrect behaviour, and the motivation to learn will decrease.
What is a prompt?
A prompt is a cue or instruction that is given before or during a user's action or response. There are different types of prompts that you can use to motivate the user to learn and succeed.
When to start prompting?
It is very important to do sufficient modelling over several weeks, without expecting any sort of response from the user, before you start prompting them for a response. This gives the user sufficient time to observe how the word is modelled before being expected to mimic the same.
What are the different types of prompts?
There are different types of prompts. For example:
Verbal prompts, such as saying “Tap the picture of popcorn!”
Gestural prompts, such as pointing to an appropriate icon on Avaz to remind them to use it.
Physical prompting involves taking the user’s hand and making them point to the appropriate icon. However, recent research doesn't support physical prompting as it is quite difficult to fade it away. Besides, it makes the user believe that they have no say in the communication and need to go by what the partner is making them do. Physical prompting includes hand-under-hand (which is better recommended compared to hand-over-hand, as it can be more easily faded. Physical prompting is less helpful and using them is not really advocated and it is extremely culturally sensitive (and it does not support safe practices that are important to protect vulnerability)
Watch Carole Zangari's video about Prompting and modelling for AAC below (6 min viewing time).
Read more about Carole Zangari here - Prompting for AAC.
Prompting Hierarchy - Least-to-most prompting
Though prompts are very useful in teaching a new concept and working on the use of it, it is also important to use them cautiously. Users become dependent on prompts easily and would seek an adult's or partner’s help before they make any type of response. Research suggests the hierarchy of least-to-most prompting as it provides the user sufficient time to respond to a natural stimulus occurring in the environment. Prompting hierarchy refers to the order and different levels of support that can be used to help the user get the appropriate responses. Remember, as you decide the type of prompts you also need to think of ways to fade prompts over time. Regardless of how often we provide prompts or what type of prompts we provide, providing a model of the possible words suitable in the conversation is considered the most useful strategy we can use.
Let us look at various prompts ranging from least intrusive to most intrusive with encouraging the user to use the word ‘GO’ to make the car go.
E.g. to prompt the word DRINK
- Avoid "testing" the child by saying "Show me the apple". This puts pressure on the child to perform. Instead, use visual, indirect prompting and gesturing, which are far more effective to elicit a response, since the child doesn't feel "tested" or judged.
Example of using Prompting hierarchy
- Read more about Importance of PAUSING between prompts for the user's response
- Avoid directing or instructing the user to do things. As Kate Ahern suggests "If you are telling a student where to navigate or what to say on his or her system you are being a director (and bossy). Instead of being directive be conversational and use visual, gestural and indirect verbal prompts to guide if you must and then model (if need be) how to get to a relevant page."
If the user responds (using any mode of communication), acknowledge and respond immediately - How to respond when the user attempts to communicate?
If the user does not respond, move through the next prompt in the hierarchy and WAIT for the response after allowing the indicated wait time.
What is Prompt dependence?
This occurs when a user needs (depends on) prompts in order to respond. In many cases a user is accidentally taught to wait for a certain prompt before responding.
Some reasons for prompt dependency are:
Over-use of prompts
Helping too much or helping too soon
Failure to fade prompts
Repeated use of prompt hierarchy across all the environments and partners thus hindering independent selection of icons
Courtesy: This section is compiled based on information provided by Octave Speech and Hearing, Bangalore.
Watch video Prompt hierarchy and AAC (13 min video) - by Megan Stewart, MS-CCC SLP